Correlation of Lower Back Pain with Gender and Smoking


  • Dr. Muhammad Saeed Qureshi Professor of Biochemistry, Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College
  • Dr. Zunaira Kanwal Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
  • Dr. Anwar ul Haq Senior Registrar of Eye department, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore
  • Dr. Amna Ijaz Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore
  • Dr. Iftikhar ali University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust
  • Dr. Usama Ali Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore



Lower Back Pain, Smoking, Gender, Students, Correlation


Background: Lower back pain (LBP) not only remains the foremost cause of work absence and medical consultation but is also the leading cause of disability. It affects individuals from both developed and developing countries including children, adolescents, and the elderly. Aim: The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between risk factors and lower back pain among the people of Pakistan. Methodology: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted at a local medical college comprising both the students and the staff. Results: Prevalence of LBP in participants was 51%. Males reported a higher frequency of LBP as compared to females (r=.191, p=0.03). Students had a significantly higher incidence of LBP as compared to staff (r=.178, p=0.04). Smoking was also associated with LBP as smokers showed a significantly higher frequency of LBP (r=.366, p=0.006). Higher frequency of LBP was also linked with a higher grade of pain (r=0.346, p=0.005). Females reported a higher grade of pain as compared to males (r=0.292, p=0.01). Conclusion: There is a high frequency of LBP in students associated with gender, smoking and lifestyle. Proper education and planning are needed to address the situation. More prospective studies are indicated to further validate the results of this study.





How to Cite

Dr. Muhammad Saeed Qureshi, Dr. Zunaira Kanwal, Dr. Anwar ul Haq, Dr. Amna Ijaz, Dr. Iftikhar ali, & Dr. Usama Ali. (2021). Correlation of Lower Back Pain with Gender and Smoking. MedERA - Journal of CMH LMC and IOD, 3(1). 5558561