MedERA - Journal of CMH LMC and IOD <p>MedERA-Journal of CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry(JCMHLMC) [<strong>ISSN(p): 2521-0106</strong> ,<strong> ISSN(l): 2789-3081</strong>] is an open-access peer-reviewed biomedical journal that publishes current research related to all the aspects of medical sciences. The acronym <strong>MedERA</strong> stands for <em>Medical and Experimental Research Articles</em>. It is an <strong>HEC-recognized Y Category</strong> biannual (2 isssues per year), <strong>double blind peer reviewed</strong>, broad-spectrum, and open-access journal that is indexed in <strong>Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), EuroPub, GoogleScholar, Scientific Indexing Services (SIS), Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI), Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ROAD), </strong>and <strong>Advanced Science Index</strong> (<strong>ASI)</strong>. The journal publishes Original Articles, Case-reports, Review Articles, Meta-analyses, Commentaries, Editorial, Innovatory papers, and invited reviews that conforms to its scope and editorial standards. To foster the trend of research among medical students, it has a special 'Students section' that publishes good quality research by the students after a rigorous editorial processing. The Journal uses the standard <strong>Online Journal System (OJS)</strong> for online research submission, processing, review, correspondence and publishing. CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry is the parent body of this Journal.</p> CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry en-US MedERA - Journal of CMH LMC and IOD 2521-0106 Frequency of Chemotherapy-Induced Myalgia in Cancer Patients using The Visual Analogue Scale <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study was to find the frequency of chemotherapy-induced myalgia in<br />patients with cancer in Lahore.<br /><strong>Methodology</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months after ethical<br />approval from February to July 2021. Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique,<br />seventy eligible patients between 45-55 years of age with cancer were included in this study from<br />both public and private hospital settings on the basis of predefined eligibility criteria. A self-<br />structured questionnaire including a visual analogue pain scale was used for data collection. Data<br />was analyzed using SPSS version 21. The qualitative variables were presented with pie charts and<br />quantitative variables are tabulated with frequencies and percentages.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age±SD of participants was 53±6.9 years. Out of 70 participants, 90% were females. The<br />significant outcome variables included the presence of myalgia, painful girdle, intensity of pain<br />(visual analogue scale), duration of treatment with the chemotherapy drug, dose of chemotherapy<br />drug and chemotherapy sessions. Chemotherapy-induced myalgia was 94.3% among target cancer<br />patients in Lahore.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In our study, chemotherapy-induced myalgia is alarmingly high in patients with<br />cancers. The pain is mostly moderate in nature and affects the shoulder region. Measures should be<br />adopted to mitigate the chemotherapy-induced myalgia as it adversely affects the patient's already<br />deteriorating quality of life.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Myalgia, Cancer, Cancer Pain, Palliative care, Chemotherapy.</p> Tayyaba Kanwal Amna Mehmood Beenish Khalid Hafsa Hashmi Hina Nadeem Ishrat Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 Tayyaba Kanwal, Amna Mehmood , Beenish Khalid, Hafsa Hashmi, Hina Nadeem, Ishrat Parveen 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307480 Clinicopathological Correlation of Leiomyoma undergoing Myomectomy in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate clinic pathological correlation of Leiomyomas undergoing myomectomy in<br />tertiary care hospital.<br /><strong>Methodology</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Gynaecology and Obstetrics<br />Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences Lahore, from June2019 to September 2022 on a<br />sample of 123 eligible patients. After a detailed history investigations and clinical examination, e.g.<br />CBC, blood grouping, fasting blood sugar, ESR, ultrasound scan, laparotomy was performed and the<br />size of uterus, tubal and ovaries condition and total number and location of fibroids we noted. A tubal<br />patency test using methylene blue was performed. Histopathological examination was performed to<br />confirm any endometrial pathology or degenerative process. The data was analysed SPSS 21.0.<br />Categorical variables like demographic profile, clinical characteristics, and location of myoma were<br />presented as frequency and percentages.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age was 25.23±5.623 years. In the study population, 69.1% were nulliparous. Heavy<br />menstrual bleeding was the commonest symptom, constituting 44.7%, mass in abdomen in 30.1%,<br />infertility in 22% and dysmenorrhea in 3.3% cases. Most common site of leiomyoma was Intramural<br />(51.21%), Subseroal 29.26%, and Submucous 19.51%.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that leiomyoma is one of the most common diseases of<br />reproductive age.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Clinicopathological correlation, leiomyomas, fibroids, uterine fibroids.</p> Javeria Mushtaq Tayyiba Wasim Javeria Zunair Anaab Wasim Ume Ammara Waheed Fiza Arif Copyright (c) 2023 DR.Javeria Mushtaq, Dr. Tayyiba Wasim, Dr. Javeria Zunair, Dr. Anaab Wasim, Dr. Ume Ammara Waheed, Dr. Fiza Arif 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307463 Awareness of Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Breast Self-Examination amongst Rural Women of Pakistan <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the awareness of major risk factors of breast cancer and understanding and<br />practice related to breast self-examination among rural women of Pakistan.<br /><strong>Methodology:</strong> 396 rural women were enrolled for this cross-sectional study from the catchment rural<br />areas of district Gujranwala between 15th September 2022 to 30th December 2022. A self-structured<br />and valid questionnaire was used to gather information regarding practice and knowledge related to<br />breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer risk factors. In this analysis, Statistical Package for<br />Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyse the data at a 95% confidence interval.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Average age of 396 rural women was 32.96±11.74 years and 25.25% of females were unaware<br />of breast cancer. Only three out of fifteen risk factors were known by 1/3 of the participant which were<br />family history of breast cancer, obesity and lack of breastfeeding. Out of the total population, the<br />majority (84%) had no idea about breast self-examination (BSE) whereas only 16% know about the<br />process of BSE.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most rural women were aware of breast cancer however the awareness level was low for<br />the associated risk factors. More importantly, despite being aware of breast cancer the vast majority<br />(84%) had no knowledge or training of BSE.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Breast self-examination, risk factors, breast cancer.</p> Asim Raza Saad Qayum Hina Irshad Kinza Shahbir Copyright (c) 2023 Asim Raza, Saad Qayum, Hina Irshad, Kinza Shahbir 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307457 Association of Interleukin-8 Levels with the Development of Uterine Leiomyomas <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To find out the relationship between Uterine Leiomyoma and IL-8 levels.<br /><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 females (age ranging from<br />25-50 years) including 50 ultrasound confirmed cases of uterine leiomyomas and 50 healthy controls<br />for a duration of 6 months. Levels of plasma IL-8 were measured by ELISA technique.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Irregular menstrual cycle was reported in about 44% of cases and 11% of controls. Mean<br />number of fibroids in females was two. 54% of women were found to have small (&lt;2cm) sized fibroids<br />while 46% had large sized fibroids. Out of these 78% were intramural and 22% were sub-serosal type<br />of fibroids. Plasma levels of IL-8 were positively correlated (p=0.001) with Uterine Leiomyomas.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> IL-8 levels are significantly higher in patients with uterine leiomyomas depicting a<br />positive correlation between IL-8 and the development of fibroids. However, further studies are<br />required to better understand the role of IL-8 in the development of fibroids.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Uterine Leiomyoma; IL-8, Risk Factors</p> Masooma Talib Ayesha Javed Mariam Malik Muhammad Farhan Zafar Muhammad Shoaib Copyright (c) 2023 Masooma Talib, Ayesha Javed, Mariam Malik, Muhammad Farhan Zafar, Muhammad Shoaib 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307440 Comparison of Single vs Multiple Doses of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Reduction Post-Caesarean Section Infection Morbidity <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to compare single vs multiple doses of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients<br />undergoing caesarean section to reduce morbidity linked with infection.<br /><strong>Methodology:</strong> A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and<br />Gynaecology, Services Hospital, Lahore from 07-09-2019 to 06-03-2020 after approval from the ethical<br />review committee. A total of 240 patients (120 in each group) were included in the study. Group A<br />received a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis and Group B was administered multiple doses of<br />prophylactic antibiotics.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Patients booked in the study had a mean age of 27.93±3.62 and 28.80±3.54 years in group-A<br />and B, respectively. In group A, the mean gestational age was 39.21±0.70 and in group B, 39.27±0.69<br />weeks. In group A, 9 patients (7.5%) and in group B, 11 patients (9.2%) were primigravida while 111<br />patients (92.5%) in group A and 109 patients (90.8%) in group B were multigravida. Febrile morbidity<br />was found in 8 patients (6.7%) in group-A and 6 patients (5.0%) in group B. (p=0.582). Postoperative<br />wound infection was observed in 11 patients (9.2%) of the group and 8 patients (6.7%) of group B<br />(p=0.473).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between the<br />two groups, single and multiple doses, in terms of their effectiveness in reducing infections after a<br />Caesarean section.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Elective caesarean section, Febrile morbidity, postoperative wound infection.</p> Kalsoom Waheed Natasha Bushra Tayyaba Rashid Aqeela Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 kalsoom waheed, Natasha Bushra, tayyaba Rashid, aqeela abbas 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307467 A Case Report on Pancoast Tumor <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br />To present and discuss a case of Pancoast Tumor: an apical lung neoplasm, and subsequently<br />highlight the clinical importance of chronic and progressive complaints, pertaining to this pathology,<br />in helping to detect it and form an early diagnosis.<br /><strong>Case:</strong> A 55-year-old non-smoker male patient, with a known case of gout and uncontrolled diabetes<br />mellitus, presented to emergency with complaints of severe right-sided pain in the chest, subscapular<br />and axillary regions. His electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzyme came out to be normal. Chest<br />X-ray showed an opacity in the apex of the right lung. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography<br />(CECT), there were enhancing multi-focal lesions in the apical segment of the right lung making a<br />diagnosis of Pancoast tumor.<br />Even though, it may be missed in the early stages as the tumor cannot be seen on imaging investigations<br />and biopsy is more specific at this time, imaging studies do play a substantial role in diagnosing this<br />tumor. Due to the challenges in diagnosing this rare type of lung neoplasm, it is usually diagnosed<br />when it has locally invaded.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Awareness regarding clinically important warning signs of Pancoast tumors such as<br />chronic and progressive neck and shoulder pain can help healthcare professionals, most notably but<br />not exclusively, chiropractors, in prompt identification of these signs and symptoms, thus facilitating<br />a timely medical and/or surgical referral and an early diagnosis of this pathology. A thorough<br />examination can assist in early diagnosis and lead to a subsequent decrease in mortality and an<br />improvement in quality of life.<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pancoast syndrome, Neck pain, Lung neoplasms.</p> Um-ul-Baneen Muhammad Shah Hussain Fateema Tanveer Muhammad Ali Lak Fatima Ali Wasay Arshad Copyright (c) 2023 Um-ul-Baneen, Muhammad Shah Hussain, Fateema Tanveer, Muhammad Ali Lak, Fatima Ali , Wasay Arshad 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 5 1 10.5281/zenodo.8307489