MedERA - Journal of CMH LMC and IOD <p>MedERA-Journal of CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry(JCMHLMC) is an open-access peer-reviewed biomedical journal that publishes current research related to all the aspects of medical sciences. The acronym MedERA stands for Medical and Experimental Research Articles. CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry is the parent body of this Journal.</p> CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry en-US MedERA - Journal of CMH LMC and IOD 2521-0106 Histomorphological effects of caffeinated energy drinks on cerebellum of adult male albino rats <p>Energy drinks are widely being used by different age groups especially by teenagers in Pakistan. Higher level of caffeine in energy drinks have harmful effects on histology of brain tissue. &nbsp;This study aims to determine the impact of oral administration of red bull on cerebellum of adult male albino rats. Red bull in dosage of 3.75 m/kg body weight was administered by oral gavage daily for 4 weeks to experimental group B followed by normal diet for next 4 weeks. Experimental group C was given 3.75 m/kg body weight of red bull for consecutive 8 weeks. The cerebellum was excised in each animal and weighted; fixed in formalin, stained with Haematoxyline and Eosin. Sections were observed for histological cytoarchitecture. Results were taken in forms of photomicrographs and analysed. Observations showed marked detachment of pia mater along with congestion, marked hypertrophy of molecular layer along with distortion of purkinje cells and shrinkage of granular layer in experimental group C. Changes were minimal to mild in experimental group B. &nbsp;Therefore, it is concluded that consumption of caffeinated energy drinks should be restricted to avoid their harmful effects on cerebellum leading to sleep disturbances and motor incoordination.</p> Syeda Sara Bano Bokhari Dr Faiza Shafqat Umair Saeed shafi Shafi Ashraf Hussain Hussain Sarwat bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Syeda Sara Bano Bokhari, Dr Faiza Shafqat Umair, Saeed shafi Shafi, Ashraf Hussain Hussain, Sarwat bukhari 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6942884 Role of Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Psychosocial Deprivation among Females Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Patients with rare diseases such as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are often challenged to be isolated, lack proper medical care and face negative social consequences. Furthermore, pubertal development is the period of rapid and nearly simultaneous transformation of biological, physical, social, and psychological domains of an individual. Hence, the process of personal transformation is also affected in children with pubertal delay. Due to delay in the growth process, the individual looks different from her or his peers and may have negative consequences on the psychological and social interactions.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;The disparities in the growth and development may cause an increase in psychosocial problems and negative peer relationship. Hence, this study was designed to observe psychosocial consequences of delayed puberty in female with CHH.&nbsp;<strong>Design:</strong>&nbsp;Cross sectional study.<strong>&nbsp;Place &amp; duration of study:</strong>&nbsp;The data were collected from CHH patients visiting public sector hospitals over a period of 18 months.&nbsp;<strong>Patients &amp; Methods:</strong>&nbsp;The demographic information, complete medical history, psychological and psychosocial symptoms of the 52 female CHH patients were recorded on the questionnaire.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The present study demonstrated that most of the patients were frustrated due to poor body image, low self-esteem, feeling themselves behind the peers, and were with complaints of depression and anxiety. The other psychological symptoms include anger, irritability, loneliness, eating and sleeping disturbances.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;It was concluded that the delayed sexual maturation has resulted in frustration, low self-esteem and increased anxiety and depression in cohort of local females with CHH.</p> Shaista Aslam Riffat Iqbal Rida Fatima Saeed Iqra Yousaf Rana Khurram Aftab Erum Monis Copyright (c) 2022 Shaista Aslam, Riffat Iqbal, Rida Fatima Saeed, Iqra Yousaf, Rana Khurram Aftab, Erum Monis 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6942991 Acute malnutrition and its determinants among children below 5 years of age using mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) in Lahore: a cross-sectional study <p>ABSTRACT<br>Objectives: The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age using mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and its determinants.<br>Materials &amp; Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Akhter Saeed Teaching Hospital Lahore and Lady Wallington Hospital Lahore from April 2019 till Oct 2019. Using systematic random sampling technique, 225 children were included in the study. A self -structured questionnaire was used to record sociodemographic details and feeding practices. A non-stretch tape measure was used for measurement of (MUAC). Malnutrition was categorized into severe acute malnutrition (MUAC; &lt;115mm) and moderate acute malnutrition (MUAC; 115mm-124mm). MUAC ranging from 125-135 signified that child is at risk of developing malnutrition while MUAC more than135mm was considered as normal. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 22. Chi square test was applied to determine the association between the variables. p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.<br>Results: The mean age of children is 2.43± 0.75 years. Malnutrition was observed in 54.6% study participants. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was found in 59 (26.2%) children and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was found in 64 (28.4%). The no of children at the risk of developing malnutrition was 32 (14.2%) while remaining 70 (31.1%) were well nourished. The percentage of severe malnutrition was more in female children as 27% had MUAC less than 115 mm. Delayed initiation of breast feeding (p value=0.008), having poor economic status (p value= 0.004), incomplete immunization status (p value= 0.003), poor appetite (p value= 0.001) and frequent episodes of illness (p value= &lt;0.001) were significantly associated with malnutrition. <br>Conclusion: Prevalence of malnutrition in children less than 5 years of age is high in Lahore. Female children were more likely to become malnourished rather than males. Delayed initiation of breast feeding, having poor economic status, incomplete immunization status, poor appetite and frequent episodes of illness were significantly associated with malnutrition. </p> Saadia Maqbool Iram Manzoor Copyright (c) 2022 Saadia Maqbool, Iram Manzoor 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6942613 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Dengue Prevention among Non-medical Employees of Aziz Fatimah Medical and Dental College <p>Dengue virus is transmitted via Aedes mosquito to humans, and results in various clinical signs and symptoms ranging from an asymptomatic infection to mild flu-like symptoms and fetal hemorrhagic fever. Keeping in view the current epidemic of dengue fever in Lahore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of non-medical employees of the Aziz Fatimah Medical and Dental College, FSD so that an effective awareness campaign could be started at the institutional level. Our results indicate that non-medical employees of Aziz Fatimah Medical and Dental College, FSD Aziz Fatimah Medical and Dental College, FSD showed a satisfactory level of knowledge, and high percentage of positive attitude and practices towards dengue prevention. A significant relation was established between knowledge related to dengue prevention and level of education. Future endeavors for health education related to dengue prevention should focus on people with lower level of education.</p> Dr Hira Zahid Ayub Ahmad Khan Atif Saeed Kanza Asghar Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Hira Zahid, Ayub Ahmad Khan, Atif Saeed, Kanza Asghar 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6942969 COVID-19: Impact, Concerns and Mental Health of Medical Students of CMH LMC <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The current study aimed to assess the concerns of the medical students regarding their studies and clinical rotations during this pandemic. Additionally, this study also explores the impact of this novel COVID-19 on different domains of medical student’s life and on their mental well-being.&nbsp;<strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;We conducted cross-sectional survey. Questions focusing on concerns and impact of COVID-19 were included. Depression, Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the mental wellbeing.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The results of current survey revealed that 49.6 % medical students of their final years suffered from the mild to extremely severe range of anxiety, 39.6 % from depression and 16.8 % suffered from the stress. Findings also highlight that mostly travelling, studies and social life were affected. As observed that mostly, students highlight their concerns about availability of Personal Preventive Equipment (PPE) and about taking of preventive measures by patients. Almost 81.4 % agreed that e learning is not the alternative for classroom face-to-face lectures. It is also observed that 60.5 % showed satisfaction about teacher’s adaptation to the e learning and 57.3 % highlight the competency of teachers about giving proper feedback and asking questions during online classes. &nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;This survey exposed students concerns due to this pandemic on their studies and clinical rotations in the clinical settings. Additionally revealed about the huge impact of Covid-19 on mental health and daily functioning of medical students in different aspects of life.</p> Iram Mansoor Maqbool Ahmad Khan Zarnish Hussain Khudeja tul Kubra Zainab Sajjid Massiha Gulzar Copyright (c) 2022 Iram Mansoor, Maqbool Ahmad Khan, Zarnish Hussain, Khudeja tul Kubra, Zainab Sajjid, Massiha Gulzar 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6942618 Nikolsky’s Sign: A Commentary on its Clinical Significance <p>Nikolsky’s sign is a clinical dermatological maneuver that dates back more than 2 centuries ago and is named after Pyotr Nikolsky (1858-1940). It has served as a very important diagnostic tool, being pathognomonic for diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Nikolsky’s sign, however, suffers from a lack of standardization, especially with regards to the method used to elicit the sign. This reduces its standard to be more qualitative than quantitative. Although Nikolsky’s sign has a high specificity, it has only a moderate sensitivity of 38% for the diagnosis of Pemphigus Vulgaris. The role of Microscopic Nikolsky’s sign has also been discussed as being a better metric than Nikolsky’s sign in the diagnosis of PV. In this paper, we discuss the clinical significance of Nikolsky’s sign, and the requirement for alternative techniques and manoeuvres.</p> Abdul Rehman Arshad Aleeza Jawed Copyright (c) 2022 Abdul Rehman Arshad, Aleeza Jawed 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 1 10.5281/zenodo.6943025